Resources from faculty

We recommend the following literature to prepare for the AfriSIG:

A. Declarations and statements of principles

  1. NETmundial Multi stakeholder Statement, 24 April 2014 | The “NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement” was developed through a process that started with 188 content contributions submitted by volunteer representatives of 46 countries. It is a document which comprises consistent definitions for principles of Internet governance and roadmap for future development of Internet governance.
  2. African Declaration on Internet Rights and Freedoms, 2014 | The development of the African Declaration on Internet Rights and Freedoms is a Pan-African initiative to promote human rights standards and principles of openness in internet policy formulation and implementation on the continent. The Declaration is intended to elaborate on the principles which are necessary to uphold human and people’s rights on the internet, and to cultivate an internet environment that can best meet Africa’s social and economic development needs and goals.
  3.  Feminist Principles of the Internet, 2014 | This document comprises 15 principles that assert feminist views on positions related to internet and communication rights. It is designed to be an evolving document that informs APC’s work on gender and technology, as well as influences APC’s policy-making discussions when it comes to internet governance.
  4. Marco Civil: Brazilian internet bill of rights – English translation, 2014 | At the NETmundial opening ceremony in Sao Paulo, President Dilma Rousseff sanctioned the historic Marco Civil Internet Bill of Rights, which was formally approved by the national parliament in March. Following two years of public consultations, the Marco Civil bill was sent to the national parliament in 2011, where it was intensely negotiated and revised. While the final adopted text includes some worrying changes from the original draft, civil society have expressed strong support for this legislative instrument that promotes, respects and defends human rights online.
  5. APC Internet Rights Charter, 2006 | Inspired by the “People’s Communications Charter” and the statement of “A Global Movement for People’s Voices in Media and Communication in the 21st Century,” the Charter was first developed in 2001-2002 by APC members and partner organisations at “Internet Rights” workshops held in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa. The themes and principles outlined express the APC community’s views and goals concerning the rights of people and organisations to use the internet freely, particularly in their work for social, economic and environmental justice.
  6. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, 1996 by John Perry Barlow | A widely distributed early paper on the applicability (or lack thereof) of government on the rapidly growing internet. Written by John Perry Barlow, a founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, in response to the passing into law of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 in the United States.

B. Outcomes from international and regional intergovernmental processes

  1.  African Union convention on cyber security and personal data protection, 2014 | The African Union Convention on Cybersecurity and Personal Data Protection was adopted the 23rd Ordinary Session of the Summit of the African Union which concluded in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea on 27 June 2014. The Convention, which substantively brings the language of ‘privacy’ at this level seeks to establish a legal framework for Cyber-security and Personal Data Protection in furtherance of the existing commitments of African Union Member States at sub-regional, regional and international levels to build the Information Society.
  2. International Telecommunications Union Plenipotentiary Conference outcome document, Busan 2014 | Outcomes of the 2014 ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The Plenipotentiary Conference is the key event at which ITU Member States decide on the future role of the organization, thereby determining the organization’s ability to influence and affect the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) worldwide.
  3. Tallinn Agenda for Freedom Online, Tallinn 2014 | A a set of recommendations for respecting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms online adopted in Tallinn, Estonia on 28 April 2014 by Ministers of the Freedom Online Coalition.
  4. Report from the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG), 2005 | The final report of the WGIG, presented on 18 July 2005.
  5. The World Summit on the Information Society: Outcome documents,  Tunis 2005 | Outcomes of the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), which took place in Tunis hosted by the Government of Tunisia, from 16 to 18 November 2005.
  6. The World Summit on the Information Society: Outcome documents, Geneva 2003 | Outcomes of the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), which  took place in Geneva hosted by the Government of Switzerland from 10 to 12 December 2003.
  7. Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters ,  Aarhus  1998 | The Aarhus Convention grants the public rights regarding access to information, public participation and access to justice, in governmental decision-making processes on matters concerning the local, national and transboundary environment. It focuses on interactions between the public and public authorities.

c. Outcomes from regional internet governance forums

Outcome documents from respective global and regional Internet Governance Forums.

  1. African Internet Governance Forum, Nairobi 2013
  2. African Internet Governance Forum Pre-event, Nairobi 2013
  3. West Africa Internet Governance Forum, Abidjan 2013
  4. Central African Internet Governance Forum, Kinshasa 2013
  5. East Africa Internet Governance Forum, Bujumbura 2013
  6. Southern Africa Internet Governance Forum, Luanda 2013
  7. African Internet Governance Forum , Cairo  2012
  8. West Africa Internet Governance Forum, Freetown 2012
  9. Central African Internet Governance Forum, Douala 2012
  10. East Africa Internet Governance Forum, Nairobi 2012

D. Various books, papers and policy briefs related to internet governance and internet governance institutions

  1. An introduction to internet governance, by Jovan Kurbalija, 2014 | The aim of this book, now in its fifth edition, is to provide a comprehensive overview of the main issues and actors in the field through a practical framework for analysis, discussion, and resolution of significant issues.
  2. Between Coordination and Regulation: Conceptualizing Governance in Internet Governance, By Jeanette Hofmann, Christian Katzenbach, and Kirsten Gollatz, August 2014 | This paper contributes to the recent move towards a more systematic reflection on the conceptual foundations of Internet governance. It is led by the question of how to define (Internet) governance in a way that is theoretically grounded as well as empirically instructive. For this aim, it mobilizes literature from the broader field of governance and regulation studies as well as sociological theory and applies these concepts to issues of Internet governance.
  3. Beyond NETmundial, edited by William J. Drake, August 2014 | Beyond NETmundial: The Roadmap for Institutional Improvements to the Global Internet Governance Ecosystem explores options for the implementation of a key section of the “NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement” that was adopted at the Global Meeting on the Future of Internet Governance (NETmundial) held on April 23rd and 24th 2014 in São Paulo, Brazil. The Roadmap section of the statement concisely sets out a series of proposed enhancements to existing mechanisms for global internet governance, as well as suggestions of possible new initiatives that the global community may wish to consider. The sixteen chapters by leading practitioners and scholars are grouped into six sections: The NETmundial Meeting; Strengthening the Internet Governance Forum; Filling the Gaps; Improving ICANN; Broader Analytical Perspectives; and Moving Forward.
  4. Internet Architecture Board: Privacy considerations for internet protocols, Cooper et al., July 2013 | This document offers guidance for developing privacy considerations for inclusion in protocol specifications. It aims to make designers, implementers, and users of Internet protocols aware of privacy-related design choices. It suggests that whether any individual RFC warrants a specific privacy considerations section will depend on the document’s content.
  5. Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies edited by William H. Dutton, 2013 | The Oxford Handbook of Internet Studies has been designed to provide a resource in this area, bringing together scholarly perspectives on how the Internet has been studied and how the research agenda should be pursued in the future. The book aims to focus on Internet studies as an emerging field, each chapter seeking to provide a synthesis and critical assessment of the research in a particular area.
  6. The Role of Governments in Internet Governance by Jeremy Malcolm, May 2013 | Presentation which analyzes the role of governments in internet governance.
  7. The Duality of Information Policy Debates: The Case of the Internet Governance Forum, by Dmitry Epstein, January 2012 | This project focuses on the dynamics of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) as a non-binding multistakeholder debate about information policymaking. Using the theory of structuration and critical discourse analysis, Epstein explores how the nation-state-centric and the internet-community centric perceptions of authority and approaches to decision-making manifest themselves in the forum and what political and cultural norms they reify.
  8. Human rights and Internet protocols: comparing processes and principles, by Avri Doria and Joy Liddicoat, December 2012 | The Internet is a network that empowers at the edges, rather that the centre, rendering it a profoundly democratic and rights-fostering platform. Human rights are principles that seek to empower those at the margins rather than at the centre of power, rendering them a fundamentally empowering framework for individuals. This paper explores human rights and Internet protocols by comparing the processes for their making and the principles by which they operate.
  9. A Long Way to Go: Civil Society Participation in Internet Governance in MIND Collaboratory discussion paper series No. 1, by Anriette Esterhuysen, September 2011 | The internet is not a level playing field. We need to deal with conflicts of interests, differences in accountability and in ability to participate. Multi-stakeholder participation in internet policy-making has a long way to go if it is to really deepen democracy.
  10. The APC ICT Policy Handbook Second Edition, by APC/Ed, David Souter, November 2009 | This handbook aims to take the mystery out of ICT policy and make it easier to understand. In particular, it aims to build the capacity of those who want to understand more about the issues surrounding policy on ICT development and regulation, to grasp the policy process, and to become more involved as informed participants.
  11. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Affirmation of commitments, 2009| The Affirmation of Commitments signed on September 30th 2009 between ICANN and the US Department of Commerce (Affirmation) contains specific provisions for periodic review of four key ICANN objectives. These reviews provide a mechanism to assess and report on ICANN’s progress toward fundamental organizational objectives; they are: Ensuring accountability, transparency and the interests of global Internet users; Preserving security, stability and resiliency of the DNS; Promoting competition, consumer trust and consumer choice; WHOIS policy.
  12. Frequently asked questions about multi-stakeholder partnerships in ICTs for development, by APC, September 2007 | In response to the growing demand for information on multi-stakeholder processes in ICT policy, APC produced the book “Frequently asked questions about multi-stakeholder partnerships in ICTs for development – a guide for national ICT policy animators”.
  13. The Working Group Of Internet Governance (WGIG): Background Report, Chateau de Bossey 2005 | The Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG) was set up by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in accordance with the mandate given to him during the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva, on 10-12 December 2003. The WGIG comprised 40 members from Governments, private sector and civil society, who all participated on an equal footing and in their personal capacity. The background report includes much of the work produced in the course of the WGIG process.
  14. New challenges to governance theory by Renate Mayntz, 1998 | The subject of this paper is the development, and the successive modifications, governance theory, a theory that began by being concerned with the steering actions of political authorities as they deliberately attempt to shape socio-economic structures and processes.

E. Gender and internet governance

  1. 9th IGF: Feminist talks scale over the walls of internet governance, 29 September 2014 |This edition of GenderIT offers snapshots of these debates and features observations and reflections from feminist and queer activists who participated in this forum to discuss issues of sexual and women’s rights, such as the responsibilities of social networking platforms to address violence against women, and the importance of anonymous communication for sexual rights activism around the world. This edition also contains an interview with a local activist from Turkey on the pathbreaking LGBTI activism in the country, the internet as a basic means for LGBTI refugees to access information, and the impact of the blocking of websites on local activists.
  2. Domestic legal remedies for technology-related violence against women: Review of related studies and literature, August 2014 | This review of related studies and literature forms part of the legal remedy research which falls under the End violence: Women’s rights and safety online (EndVAW) flagship project of the Association for Progressive Communications (APC).
  3. End violence research: Case summaries from country reports, August 2014 | The following case summaries are excerpted from End violence against women: Country reports, which involve seven countries and are part of research commissioned by the APC Women’s Rights Programme beginning in 2013. End violence against women research focuses on tech-related violence, from mobile phones to the internet.
  4. Internet intermediaries and violence against women online: User policies and redress framework of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, by Carly Nyst, 4 August 2014 | A recent report, “Internet intermediaries and violence against women online” released by the Association for Progressive Communications for the End violence: Women’s rights and safety online project, which analyses the policies and redress framework of the three major internet intermediaries: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, in regard to violence against women online.
  5. Technology-related violence against women – Recent legislative trends, by Carly Nyst, 26 August, 2014 | This study seeks to explore recent legislative developments aimed at addressing and providing avenues of redress for technology-related violence against women.
  6. GISWatch 2013: Setting the agenda on women’s rights, gender and ICTs, 10 December 2013 | A GenderIT edition highlighting the 2013 Global Information Society Watch.
  7. Critically absent: Women in internet governance. A policy advocacy toolkit, April 2012|  The women’s movement has always had the ability to make the invisible visible and grant it a political character. This toolkit encourages women and their organisations to engage in political discussions regarding internet development with a vision of inclusion, fairness and respect for women’s rights. The authors’ visions are that the toolkit be used to raise awareness and encourage participation in a new environment where women cannot and should not be absent.
  8. Gender Peripheries of the 2012 Internet Governance Forum, 23 November 2012 | A GenderIT edition which covers the 2012 Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Baku. “Gender aspects of human rights on the internet, such as the serious abuses women face because of what they say online, are still absent in the debates”
  9. Gender Peripheries of the 2011 Internet Governance Forum, 18 October 2011 | A GenderIT edition which covers the 2011 Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Nairobi.
  10. Internet governance issues on sexuality and women’s rights, 10 September 2010 | This briefing document highlights key issues on internet regulations that are relevant for gender equality and sexuality. It also brings to the debate findings from various research initiatives undertaken by APC and key partners, including a cross-country research initiative – EROTICS – that is being conducted in five countries: Brazil, India, Lebanon, South Africa and the United States.
  11. Gender Peripheries of Internet Governance Forum 2010, 7 October 2010 | A GenderIT edition on the fifth Internet Governance Forum (IGF) which took place from 14-17 September 2010 in Vilnius, Lithuania. It looks at questions such as “Have we got any closer to strengthening the role of the internet in defending and realising women’s rights and sexual rights?”, and “What experiences and gains have women rights advocates brought back home from this forum?”
  12. Gender Peripheries of Internet Governance Forum, Athens, 2 November 2006 | A GenderIT edition which covers the first meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Athens.
  13. Keeping the Internet Neutral?: Tim Wu and Christopher Yoo Debate 12 January 2007 | Network neutrality has emerged as one of the highest profile issues in telecommunications and Internet policy last year. Not only did it play a pivotal role in both houses of Congress during debates over proposed communications reform legislation; it also emerged as a key consideration during the Federal Communications Commission consideration of the recent SBC-AT&T, Verizon-MCI, and AT&T-BellSouth mergers. In the following exchange, Professors Tim Wu and Christopher Yoo engage in a lively debate over the merits of network neutrality that reviews the leading arguments on both sides of the issue.
  14. Beyond Network Neutrality 14 June 2005 by Christopher S. Yoo| In this Article, Professor Yoo takes issue with the emerging scholarly consensus in favor of “network neutrality,” which would prohibit network owners from employing proprietary protocols or entering into exclusivity agreements with content providers that would reduce the transparency of the Internet. Economic theory suggests that network neutrality advocates are focusing on the wrong policy problem. Communications policy would be better served if the focus were placed on the segment of the industry that is the most concentrated and protected by entry barriers, which in the case of broadband is the last mile. Professor Yoo proposes a “network diversity” approach that would use product differentiation to encourage investment and to mitigate the supply-side and demand-side scale economies associated with the impact of up-front, fixed costs and by network economic effects.
  15. Network Neutrality and Quality of Service: What a Non-Discrimination Rule Should Look Like by Barbara van Schewick 2015|This paper helps policy makers think through the available options, focusing on the substantive merits of the different non-discrimination rules under consideration. In addition to rules that forbid network providers from blocking applications, content and services, rules that forbid discrimination are a key component of any network neutrality regime. Non-discrimination rules apply to any form of differential treatment that falls short of blocking. They determine, for example, whether network providers are allowed to provide low – delay service only to their own streaming video application, but not to competing video applications.
  16. Towards a Developmental Framework for Net Neutrality: The Rise of Sponsored Data Plans in Developing Countries 31 March 2014 | Academic research has been paying little attention to the net neutrality debate in developing countries, where large content providers such as Facebook, Google and Twitter have long been executing agreements with local mobile ISPs for prioritized or subsidized data delivery for their customers. Thus, the goal of this paper is to assess the potential consequences of these business arrangements for the IT industry in these countries. Our hypothesis is that these agreements may actually lead to unintended effects for the expansion of the mobile sector in developing countries, as they may empower market concentration, restrict local innovation and reduce user choices. In order to overcome these consequences, a net neutrality rule could play an instrumental role in fostering the innovation sector in developing countries, without resorting to protectionist policies.
  17. Exploring Zero-Rating Challenges: Views from 5 Countries| Recent changes in net neutrality regulation around the world have made net neutrality, zero-rating, and their effects on telecommunications practices a significant area of interest. To inform this ongoing critical debate, Public Knowledge (“PK”) provides in-depth case studies of five countries. The countries are present on the international forefront regarding the issues of net neutrality and zero-rating. The profile of each country is structured on the basis of core questions that are at the heart of our overall inquiry
  18. Regulatory Perspectives on Net Neutrality 8 July 2015 by Pranesh Prakash | In this paper the author gives an overview on why India needs to put in place net neutrality regulations, and the form that those regulations must take to avoid being over-regulation.

  19. An open Internet in Africa: Challenges shifting beyond access by Nicolas Seidler.  21 March 2015| This article tackles issues of opennes and what access means. It puts the question of how access to the internet can be used in Africa
  20. Keystones to foster inclusive Knowledge Societies | The transnational and multi-dimensional nature of Cyberspace and its growing importance presents new frontiers with unparalleled opportunities and challenges for access to information and knowledge, freedom of expression, privacy and ethics. The Internet Study being undertaken by UNESCO is seeking to provide the necessary clarity to support holistic approaches to addressing this broad range of interrelated issues as well as their short and long-term effects.
  21. Public access: Supporting digital inclusion for all| The convergence between the internet and mobile networks has enabled some of the most innovative uses of mobile telephony, such as monitoring human rights, early warning systems, election monitoring, financial transactions, sharing public health information and reporting of domestic violence. But the same process also poses new challenges in terms of policy, regulation, development of applications and building capacity, among others.
  22. Poor internet for poor people: why Facebook’s amounts to economic racism 18 April 2015 by Mahesh Murthy

  23. The perils and prospects of bringing the next billion online. Conference by Sunil Abraham.
  24. Zero-rated Internet Boon or Bane? 2 April 2015 by Mwende Njiraini

F. Global information society watch reports

  1. 2014 – Special report on Turkey | This report presents an up-to-date assessment of internet rights in Turkey, and was prepared to coincide with the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) 2014 hosted  by Turkey in Istanbul from 2–5 September 2014.
  2. 2014 – Communications Surveillance in the Digital Age | This Global Information Society Watch tracks the state of communications surveillance in 57 countries across the world. Some analyse legal frameworks that allow surveillance, others the role of businesses in collecting data (including marketing data on children), the potential of biometrics to violate rights, or the privacy challenges when implementing a centralised universal health system. The perspectives from long-time internet activists on surveillance are also recorded. Using the 13 International Principles on the Application of Human Rights to Communications Surveillance as a starting point, eight thematic reports frame the key issues at stake. These include discussions on what we mean by digital surveillance, the implications for a human rights agenda on surveillance, the “Five Eyes” inter-government surveillance network led by the US, cyber security, and the role of intermediaries.
  3. 2013 – Women’s Rights, Gender and ICTs | This edition of GISWatch explores women’s rights and gender through the lens of information and communications technologies (ICTs). It includes a series of expert thematic reports on issues such as access to infrastructure, participation, online disobedience, and sexuality online, as well as 46 country reports on topics like the rights of domestic workers, trafficking in women, participation in governance, child brides, and the right to abortion.
  4. 2012 – The internet and corruption | GISWatch 2012 explores how the internet is being used to ensure transparency and accountability, the challenges that civil society activists face in fighting corruption, and when the internet fails as an enabler of a transparent and fair society.
  5. 2011 – Update 1: Internet Rights and Democratisation | The reports gathered here offer an in-depth account of the human rights challenges faced online in six countries: Argentina, Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa.
  6. 2011 – Update 2: Internet Rights and Democratisation | This publication is a follow-up to GISWatch 2011. This follow-up report maps themes and trends that emerged in the 2011 publication, and also follows up on the action steps suggested in the country reports to see how relevant they still are one year later. There are five chapters here, focusing on the themes of collaborative advocacy networks; how activists are working for greater public participation in both internet governance and governance more broadly; research for advocacy and awareness; threats to internet freedom and security; and emerging issues in policy advocacy for internet rights.
  7. 2011 – Internet Rights and Democratisation | GISWatch 2011 investigates how governments and internet and mobile phone companies are trying to restrict freedom online – and how citizens are responding to this using the very same technologies.
  8. 2010 – ICTs and Environmental Sustainability | GISWatch 2010 is a rallying cry to electronics producers and consumers, policy makers and development organisations to pay urgent attention to the sustainability of the environment. It spells out the impact that the production, consumption and disposal of computers, mobile phones and other technology are having on the earth’s natural resources, on political conflict and social rights, and the massive global carbon footprint produced.
  9. 2009 – Access to Online Information and Knowledge | GISWatch 2009 focuses on access to online information and knowledge – advancing human rights and democracy. It includes several thematic reports dealing with key issues in the field, as well as an institutional overview and a reflection on indicators that track access to information and knowledge. There is also an innovative section on visual mapping of global rights and political crises.
  10. 2008 – Access to Infrastructure | GISWatch 2008 focuses on access to infrastructure and includes several thematic reports dealing with key access issues, an analysis of where global institutions stand on the access debate, a report looking at the state of indicators and access, six regional reports and 38 country reports.
  11. 2007 – Participation | Global Information Society Watch monitors the implementation and follow-up of key international agreements about ICT policies and their relationship to development, including WSIS and other information and communication policy processes at international, regional and national level. This first report in the GISWatch series focuses on Participation. The GISWatch 2007 Report is the first in a series of yearly reports covering the state of the information society from the perspectives of civil society and stakeholders in the global South. The report also offers an institutional overview and a reflection on ICT indicators for advocacy and online and 26 country reports available for individual download.

G. Websites

  1. Africa Top Level Domains Organization (aFTLD) | The Africa Top Level Domains Organization (aFTLD) is an association of top level country code domain name (ccTLD) managers in the Africa region.
  2. African Internet Governance Forum | Based on the model of the global Internet Governance Forum (IGF) secretariat, which is hosted by the United Nations Department of Economic Affairs (UNDESA), African Internet Governance Forum (AfIGF) secretariat is hosted by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).
  3. African Undersea Cables | The website of Steve Song, the Founder of Village Telco, a social enterprise that builds low-cost WiFi mesh VoIP technologies to deliver affordable voice and Internet in underserviced areas.
  4. AfriNIC | The African Network Information Center (AFRINIC) is the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for Africa, responsible for the distribution and management of Internet number resources such as IP addresses and ASN (Autonomous System Numbers) for the African region.
  5. Diplo Foundation’s Youtube channel |A number of great videos which explains various processes related to the governance of the internet. In particular:  Videos on Internet GovernanceIG Lite” animations (DNSSec, IPv6, Cloud Computing, DPI)
  6. EuroDIG | The Pan-European dialogue on Internet governance (EuroDIG) is an open platform for informal and inclusive discussion and exchange on public policy issues related to Internet Governance (IG) between stakeholders from all over Europe. It was created in 2008 by a number of key stakeholders representing various European stakeholder groups working in the field of IG. EuroDIG is a network which is open to all European stakeholders that are interested in contributing to an open and interactive discussion on IG issues.
  7. ICANN Country Code Names Supporting Organisation (ccNSO) | The Country Code Names Supporting Organisation (ccNSO) is a body within the ICANN structure created for and by ccTLD managers.
  8. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) | The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers is a nonprofit organization that is responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network’s stable and secure operation.
  9. Internet Governance Forum (IGF) | The official website of the Internet Governance Forum. The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) serves to bring people together from various stakeholder groups as equals, in discussions on public policy issues relating to the Internet. While there is no negotiated outcome, the IGF informs and inspires those with policy-making power in both the public and private sectors. At their annual meeting delegates discuss, exchange information and share good practices with each other. The IGF facilitates a common understanding of how to maximize Internet opportunities and address risks and challenges that arise.
  10. Internet Society (ISOC) | The Internet Society (ISoc) is an international, non-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, education, and policy. It states that its mission is “to promote the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world”.
  11. InternetNZ | InternetNZ is a non-partisan, not-for-profit open membership organisation dedicated to protecting and promoting the Internet for New Zealand.
  12. Number Resource Organisation (NRO) | The Number Resource Organization, or NRO, is a unincorporated organization which brings together the world’s five Regional Internet Registries (RIRs).
  13. West Africa Internet Governance Forum | The West Africa Internet Governance Forum (WAIGF) is a project that aims to promote Internet Governance issues in West Africa through a multi-stakeholder process. The Project is run by a consortium led by the Free Software and Open Source Foundation for Africa (FOSSFA). Other members of the consortium include AfriNic, Panos West Africa, the IISD, APC, ISOC and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The project has received support from the Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA).
  14. Network Neutrality Dynamic Coalition |“Network neutrality” is an appealing and multifaceted expression which encompasses several policy areas and may give rise to misinterpretations. In view of the various approaches to this multi-faceted topic, it is important today to address the question of network neutrality through a multi-stakeholder approach. The purpose of the Network Neutrality Dynamic Coalition, therefore, is to provide a discussion arena aimed at allowing all interested stakeholders to jointly scrutinise the various nuances of the network-neutrality debate so as to ultimately contribute to the circulation of best practices and the elaboration of well-advised policies and regulations.

H. Illustrations of internet goverannce

Illustrations that bring to light internet governance processes.

  1. Babylon
  2. Building under construction
  3. Digital policy operating system
  4. Internet governance building
  5. Internet governance cube
  6. Internet governance layers (simplified OSI model)
  7. Internet governance paradigm: old vs new
  8. Internet governance processes: Visualizing the playing field 
  9. IPv6
  10. Net neutrality
  11. NETmundial
  12. Privacy
  13. Security vs privacy
  14. Some of cybersecurity illustrations
  15. Subway IG map
  16. ICANN: Three Layers of Digital Governance



  1. Pria Chetty – Privacy Governance
  2. Pria Chetty – Cybersecurity
  3. Khaled Fourati – AfriSIG Khaled Fourati_Beyond Telecom Policies and Regulations
  4. Towela Nyirenda Jere – Session 2 – institutions and policy processes
  5. Adiel A. Akplogan – Session 5 – Internet addresses AFRINIC & Ecosystem
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